Astronomical Data


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Astronomical data is used to determine the sacred calendar. One source for determining astronomical data is:

http://www.usno.navy.mil/USNO/astronomical-applications

The Modern Jewish Calendar

The Jewish people were the faithful preservers of God's Sacred Calendar for many centuries. The preservation of the methods and knowledge for determining the calendar became the province of the priests and a centralized authority in the centuries before the coming of the Messiah. When the Jewish people lost the central authority for maintaining the calendar in the centuries after the Messiah came, a formula for predicting the calendar was put into place.

This formula was an impressive development but it was not completely accurate even as an average. At some point their man-made rules and traditions also created rules called postponements which were not Biblical and corrupted the calendar even further. There are many sources and websites that describe the Modern Jewish Calendar.

The chaotic and apostate state of the Jewish calendar is well known. I did a web search for "jewish calendar error". A quote on just one of the most basic astronomical errors:

The Accuracy of the Hebrew Calendar

The accuracy of the Hebrew calendar is fixed by the value of its mean lunation period coupled to the 19 year cycle of 235 lunar months. (This is known as the Metonic cycle and was also a part of Babylonian Chronology dating to 626 B.C.)

That leads to an average Hebrew year length of aproximately 365.2468 days.

Since the mean tropical solar year is about 365.2422 days, the average Hebrew year is slower than the average solar year by about one day in every 216 years.

Hence, on average today, Jews celebrate their holidays, about 8 days later than did their ancestors in 4119 (Jewish year which is 358/9 AD Gregorian), at the time that the fixed calendar rules were said to have been published by Hillel II.

Should no Hebrew calendar reform take place to account for the known astronomical differences, then over the next few millenia, all of the holidays will have drifted out of their anticipated seasons and Pesach could theoretically be observed in winter.

Other references:

Admissions on the Calculated Rabbinical Calendar

The Modern Jewish Calendar

The Sacred Day

Accurate determination for the Sacred Calendar is based on the time of the Sacred Day in Jerusalem. The coordinates for the temple in Jerusalem, IS are approximately Latitude/Longitude 31° 46' 41" N, 35° 14' 7" E.

The Chapel of the Ascension is near where I suspect is the location of Golgotha at the coordinates: 31°46'43"N 35°14'42"E

Here are some WikiMapia and Google pictures.

The local time zone is 2 hours east of Greenwich but I do not use the local time as a reference. I use Universal time for all calculations.

Sunrise/Sunset data for determining the start of the day:

http://www.usno.navy.mil/USNO/astronomical-applications/data-services/rs-one-year-us

JERUSALEM, IS
Location: E035 15, N31 47
Universal Time
Rise and Set for the Sun for 2008

       Jan.       Feb.       Mar.       Apr.       May        June
Day Rise  Set  Rise  Set  Rise  Set  Rise  Set  Rise  Set  Rise  Set
     h m  h m   h m  h m   h m  h m   h m  h m   h m  h m   h m  h m
01  0439 1446  0433 1513  0406 1537  0327 1559  0253 1619  0234 1640
02  0439 1446  0432 1514  0405 1538  0326 1559  0252 1620  0234 1640
03  0439 1447  0431 1514  0404 1539  0325 1600  0251 1621  0234 1641
04  0440 1448  0431 1515  0402 1539  0324 1601  0251 1621  0234 1641
05  0440 1449  0430 1516  0401 1540  0322 1601  0250 1622  0233 1642
06  0440 1450  0429 1517  0400 1541  0321 1602  0249 1623  0233 1642
07  0440 1450  0429 1518  0359 1542  0320 1603  0248 1623  0233 1643
08  0440 1451  0428 1519  0358 1542  0319 1603  0247 1624  0233 1643
09  0440 1452  0427 1520  0356 1543  0317 1604  0246 1625  0233 1644
10  0440 1453  0426 1521  0355 1544  0316 1605  0246 1626  0233 1644
11  0440 1454  0425 1522  0354 1544  0315 1605  0245 1626  0233 1645
12  0440 1455  0424 1522  0353 1545  0314 1606  0244 1627  0233 1645
13  0440 1455  0424 1523  0352 1546  0313 1607  0243 1628  0233 1645
14  0440 1456  0423 1524  0350 1547  0311 1607  0243 1628  0233 1646
15  0440 1457  0422 1525  0349 1547  0310 1608  0242 1629  0233 1646
16  0439 1458  0421 1526  0348 1548  0309 1609  0241 1630  0233 1646
17  0439 1459  0420 1527  0346 1549  0308 1610  0241 1630  0233 1647
18  0439 1500  0419 1528  0345 1549  0307 1610  0240 1631  0233 1647
19  0439 1501  0418 1528  0344 1550  0306 1611  0240 1632  0234 1647
20  0438 1502  0417 1529  0343 1551  0305 1612  0239 1632  0234 1647
21  0438 1503  0416 1530  0341 1551  0304 1612  0239 1633  0234 1648
22  0438 1503  0415 1531  0340 1552  0302 1613  0238 1634  0234 1648
23  0437 1504  0414 1532  0339 1553  0301 1614  0238 1634  0235 1648
24  0437 1505  0413 1532  0338 1553  0300 1614  0237 1635  0235 1648
25  0437 1506  0412 1533  0336 1554  0259 1615  0237 1636  0235 1648
26  0436 1507  0410 1534  0335 1555  0258 1616  0236 1636  0235 1648
27  0436 1508  0409 1535  0334 1555  0257 1616  0236 1637  0236 1648
28  0435 1509  0408 1536  0332 1556  0256 1617  0235 1637  0236 1649
29  0435 1510  0407 1536  0331 1557  0255 1618  0235 1638  0236 1649
30  0434 1511             0330 1557  0254 1619  0235 1639  0237 1649
31  0433 1512             0329 1558             0234 1639

       July       Aug.       Sept.      Oct.       Nov.       Dec.
Day Rise  Set  Rise  Set  Rise  Set  Rise  Set  Rise  Set  Rise  Set
     h m  h m   h m  h m   h m  h m   h m  h m   h m  h m   h m  h m
01  0237 1649  0255 1635  0315 1603  0333 1524  0355 1449  0421 1435
02  0238 1648  0256 1635  0315 1601  0334 1522  0356 1448  0422 1435
03  0238 1648  0256 1634  0316 1600  0334 1521  0357 1448  0423 1435
04  0239 1648  0257 1633  0316 1559  0335 1520  0358 1447  0424 1435
05  0239 1648  0257 1632  0317 1558  0336 1519  0359 1446  0424 1435
06  0239 1648  0258 1631  0318 1556  0336 1517  0400 1445  0425 1435
07  0240 1648  0259 1630  0318 1555  0337 1516  0400 1445  0426 1435
08  0240 1648  0259 1629  0319 1554  0338 1515  0401 1444  0427 1435
09  0241 1647  0300 1628  0319 1553  0338 1514  0402 1443  0428 1435
10  0241 1647  0301 1627  0320 1551  0339 1512  0403 1443  0428 1436
11  0242 1647  0301 1626  0321 1550  0340 1511  0404 1442  0429 1436
12  0243 1647  0302 1625  0321 1549  0340 1510  0405 1441  0430 1436
13  0243 1646  0303 1624  0322 1547  0341 1509  0406 1441  0430 1436
14  0244 1646  0303 1623  0322 1546  0342 1508  0407 1440  0431 1437
15  0244 1646  0304 1622  0323 1545  0342 1507  0407 1440  0432 1437
16  0245 1645  0305 1621  0324 1543  0343 1505  0408 1439  0432 1437
17  0245 1645  0305 1620  0324 1542  0344 1504  0409 1439  0433 1438
18  0246 1644  0306 1619  0325 1541  0345 1503  0410 1438  0433 1438
19  0247 1644  0307 1618  0325 1539  0345 1502  0411 1438  0434 1438
20  0247 1643  0307 1617  0326 1538  0346 1501  0412 1437  0435 1439
21  0248 1643  0308 1616  0327 1537  0347 1500  0413 1437  0435 1439
22  0248 1642  0308 1615  0327 1535  0348 1459  0414 1437  0436 1440
23  0249 1642  0309 1614  0328 1534  0348 1458  0414 1436  0436 1441
24  0250 1641  0310 1612  0329 1533  0349 1457  0415 1436  0436 1441
25  0250 1640  0310 1611  0329 1531  0350 1456  0416 1436  0437 1442
26  0251 1640  0311 1610  0330 1530  0351 1455  0417 1436  0437 1442
27  0252 1639  0312 1609  0330 1529  0351 1454  0418 1435  0438 1443
28  0252 1638  0312 1608  0331 1528  0352 1453  0419 1435  0438 1444
29  0253 1638  0313 1606  0332 1526  0353 1452  0420 1435  0438 1444
30  0254 1637  0313 1605  0332 1525  0354 1451  0420 1435  0439 1445
31  0254 1636  0314 1604             0355 1450             0439 1446

The Sacred Month

It is easy to determine the start of the month by locating the time of the astronomical new moon. Find the next sunrise in Jerusalem, and the sunset of that day is the beginning of the month. Add 2 days to the Gregorian date of the astronomical new moon unless the new moon is before sunrise in Jerusalem, then add only 1.

Moon phase data for determining the start of the month:

http://www.usno.navy.mil/USNO/astronomical-applications/data-services/phases-moon

2008 Phases of the Moon Universal Time

      NEW MOON   FIRST QUARTER        FULL MOON     LAST QUARTER

       d  h  m         d  h  m          d  h  m          d  h  m
       
JAN.   8 11 37   JAN. 15 19 46   JAN.  22 13 35   JAN.  30  5 03
FEB.   7  3 44   FEB. 14  3 33   FEB.  21  3 30   FEB.  29  2 18
MAR.   7 17 14   MAR. 14 10 46   MAR.  21 18 40   MAR.  29 21 47
APR.   6  3 55   APR. 12 18 32   APR.  20 10 25   APR.  28 14 12
MAY    5 12 18   MAY  12  3 47   MAY   20  2 11   MAY   28  2 57
JUNE   3 19 23   JUNE 10 15 04   JUNE  18 17 30   JUNE  26 12 10
JULY   3  2 19   JULY 10  4 35   JULY  18  7 59   JULY  25 18 42
AUG.   1 10 13   AUG.  8 20 20   AUG.  16 21 16   AUG.  23 23 50
AUG.  30 19 58   SEPT. 7 14 04   SEPT. 15  9 13   SEPT. 22  5 04  
SEPT. 29  8 12   OCT.  7  9 04   OCT.  14 20 02   OCT.  21 11 55
OCT.  28 23 14   NOV.  6  4 03   NOV.  13  6 17   NOV.  19 21 31
NOV.  27 16 55   DEC.  5 21 26   DEC.  12 16 37   DEC.  19 10 29
DEC.  27 12 22       

2009 Phases of the Moon Universal Time

      NEW MOON    FIRST QUARTER       FULL MOON     LAST QUARTER

       d  h  m          d  h  m         d  h  m          d  h  m
       
                 JAN.   4 11 56   JAN. 11  3 27   JAN.  18  2 46
JAN.  26  7 55   FEB.   2 23 13   FEB.  9 14 49   FEB.  16 21 37
FEB.  25  1 35   MAR.   4  7 46   MAR. 11  2 38   MAR.  18 17 47 
MAR.  26 16 06   APR.   2 14 34   APR.  9 14 56   APR.  17 13 36  
APR.  25  3 23   MAY    1 20 44   MAY   9  4 01   MAY   17  7 26
MAY   24 12 11   MAY   31  3 22   JUNE  7 18 12   JUNE  15 22 15
JUNE  22 19 35   JUNE  29 11 28   JULY  7  9 21   JULY  15  9 53  
JULY  22  2 35   JULY  28 22 00   AUG.  6  0 55   AUG.  13 18 55  
AUG.  20 10 02   AUG.  27 11 42   SEPT. 4 16 03   SEPT. 12  2 16
SEPT. 18 18 44   SEPT. 26  4 50   OCT.  4  6 10   OCT.  11  8 56  
OCT.  18  5 33   OCT.  26  0 42   NOV.  2 19 14   NOV.   9 15 56  
NOV.  16 19 14   NOV.  24 21 39   DEC.  2  7 30   DEC.   9  0 13  
DEC.  16 12 02   DEC.  24 17 36   DEC. 31 19 13

Sacred Months 2008-2013 (All times are GMT):

   New Moon  Sunrise  Month Begins

JAN  8 11:37  04:40   JAN 10, 2008
FEB  7  3:44  04:29   FEB  8, 2008
MAR  7 17:14  03:59   MAR  9, 2008
APR  6  3:55  03:21   APR  8, 2008
MAY  5 12:18  02:50   MAY  7, 2008
JUN  3 19:23  02:34   JUN  5, 2008
JUL  3  2:19  02:38   JUL  4, 2008
AUG  1 10:13  02:55   AUG  3, 2008
AUG 30 19:58  03:13   SEP  1, 2008
SEP 29  8:12  03:32   OCT  1, 2008
OCT 28 23:14  03:52   OCT 30, 2008
NOV 27 16:55  04:18   NOV 29, 2008
DEC 27 12:22  04:38   DEC 29, 2008
JAN 26  7:55  04:36   JAN 28, 2009
FEB 25  1:35  04:11   FEB 26, 2009
MAR 26 16:06  03:35   MAR 28, 2009
APR 25  3:23  03:00   APR 27, 2009
MAY 24 12:11  02:37   MAY 26, 2009
JUN 22 19:35  02:34   JUN 24, 2009
JUL 22  2:35  02:48   JUL 23, 2009
AUG 20 10:02  03:07   AUG 22, 2009
SEP 18 18:44  03:25   SEP 20, 2009
OCT 18  5:33  03:44   OCT 20, 2009
NOV 16 19:14  04:08   NOV 18, 2009
DEC 16 12:02  04:32   DEC 18, 2009
JAN 15  7:11  04:39   JAN 17, 2010
FEB 14  2:51  04:22   FEB 15, 2010
MAR 15 21:01  03:50   MAR 17, 2010
APR 14 12:29  03:12   APR 16, 2010
MAY 14  1:04  02:43   MAY 15, 2010
JUN 12 11:15  02:33   JUN 14, 2010
JUL 11 19:40  02:42   JUL 13, 2010
AUG 10  3:08  03:00   AUG 11, 2010
SEP  8 10:30  03:19   SEP 10, 2010
OCT  7 18:44  03:37   OCT  9, 2010
NOV  6  4:52  03:59   NOV  8, 2010
DEC  5 17:36  04:24   DEC  7, 2010
JAN  4  9:03  04:40   JAN  6, 2011
FEB  3  2:31  04:31   FEB  4, 2011
MAR  4 20:46  04:03   MAR  6, 2011
APR  3 14:32  03:26   APR  5, 2011
MAY  3  6:51  02:52   MAY  5, 2011
JUN  1 21:03  02:34   JUN  3, 2011
JUL  1  8:54  02:37   JUL  3, 2011
JUL 30 18:40  02:53   AUG  1, 2011
AUG 29  3:04  03:12   AUG 30, 2011
SEP 27 11:09  03:30   SEP 29, 2011
OCT 26 19:56  03:50   OCT 28, 2011
NOV 25  6:10  04:16   NOV 27, 2011
DEC 24 18:06  04:36   DEC 26, 2011
JAN 23  7:39  04:37   JAN 25, 2012
FEB 21 22:35  04:16   FEB 23, 2012
MAR 22 14:37  03:40   MAR 24, 2012
APR 21  7:18  03:03   APR 23, 2012
MAY 20 23:47  02:39   MAY 22, 2012
JUN 19 15:02  02:34   JUN 21, 2012
JUL 19  4:24  02:47   JUL 21, 2012
AUG 17 15:54  03:05   AUG 19, 2012
SEP 16  2:11  03:24   SEP 17, 2012
OCT 15 12:02  03:42   OCT 17, 2012
NOV 13 22:08  04:06   NOV 15, 2012
DEC 13  8:42  04:30   DEC 15, 2012
JAN 11 19:44  04:40   JAN 13, 2013
FEB 10  7:20  04:25   FEB 12, 2013
MAR 11 19:51  03:54   MAR 13, 2013
APR 10  9:35  03:16   APR 12, 2013
MAY 10  0:28  02:46   MAY 11, 2013
JUN  8 15:56  02:33   JUN 10, 2013
JUL  8  7:14  02:40   JUL 10, 2013
AUG  6 21:51  02:58   AUG  8, 2013
SEP  5 11:36  03:17   SEP  7, 2013
OCT  5  0:35  03:35   OCT  6, 2013
NOV  3 12:50  03:57   NOV  5, 2013
DEC  3  0:22  04:23   DEC  4, 2013

The Sacred Year

It is also easy to determine the start of the year by locating the time of the spring equinox. Find the earliest month in which the 14th day ends after the equinox. That day is Passover and that month is the first month of the year.

Equinox data for determining the start of the year:

http://www.usno.navy.mil/USNO/astronomical-applications/data-services/earth-seasons

Universal Time    d  h                      d  h  m           d  h  m

2008                        2008
Perihelion  Jan   3 00    Equinoxes  Mar   20 05 48    Sept  22 15 44
Aphelion    July  4 08    Solstices  June  20 23 59    Dec   21 12 04

2009                        2009
Perihelion  Jan   4 15    Equinoxes  Mar   20 11 44    Sept  22 21 18
Aphelion    July  4 02    Solstices  June  21 05 45    Dec   21 17 47

2010                        2010
Perihelion  Jan   3 00    Equinoxes  Mar   20 17 32    Sept  23 03 09
Aphelion    July  6 11    Solstices  June  21 11 28    Dec   21 23 38

2011                        2011
Perihelion  Jan   3 19    Equinoxes  Mar   20 23 21    Sept  23 09 04
Aphelion    July  4 15    Solstices  June  21 17 16    Dec   22 05 30

2012                        2012
Perihelion  Jan   5 00    Equinoxes  Mar   20 05 14    Sept  22 14 49
Aphelion    July  5 03    Solstices  June  20 23 09    Dec   21 11 11

2013                        2013
Perihelion  Jan   2 05    Equinoxes  Mar   20 11 02    Sept  22 20 44
Aphelion    July  5 15    Solstices  June  21 05 04    Dec   21 17 11

Next: The Year 2004


Revised 2010-11-19